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What are the different skin types and how to recognize yours? By Alice Chavanne.

Alice Chavanne is a skin therapist based between the Basque coast and Paris who is passionate about skin and skincare and supports people wanting to know more about their skin and how to take care of it.

We asked her to contribute her expertise to the Tone beauty editorial.

To learn more about her work, visit @alicechavanne_skintherapeute




Skin types

1/ There are 4 types of skin: dry - normal - combination - oily

Around 70% of the female population has combination skin.



2/ Skin type is a genetic predisposition. We are born with it, even if in women, all skin dries out over time. It is a response to the reduction in the level of sexual hormones, responsible for hydration, nutrition, flexibility, firmness and thickness of the skin.



3/ Do not confuse skin type with skin condition (sensitive, dehydrated, eczema, acne, rosacea). The conditions can be of genetic origin but are strongly impacted by our environment. They can last 3 days or 30 years.



4/ What will mainly differentiate these skin types is the production of fat, called sebum. Oily skin secretes a lot of sebum, unlike dry skin.



DRY SKIN


Dry skin has an altered hydrolipidic film (hydro = water, lipid = fat) and lacks fat.
Dry skin therefore needs to be nourished before being hydrated, and should not be confused with dehydrated skin.
It requires a contribution of 60% fat and 40% water.
It can be rough to the touch, lack luster and feel tight. Also more sensitive to climatic changes: hot, cold, wind.

The needs of dry skin: Nourish, hydrate, protect, prevent aging. You can use rich creams and oils like argan, borage, plum. Moisturizing serums or serums enriched with ceramides to strengthen the skin barrier will be very appreciated. Once or twice a month, carry out an enzymatic exfoliation and in addition, apply a regenerating mask. Facial massages will help soften and deeply hydrate/nourish the skin.

To avoid: aggressive cleansers and cosmetics, cleansing the skin in the morning, green clay, excessively repetitive scrubs.


NORMAL SKIN

Normal skin has a fair balance between sebum and water.
Neither too dry nor too oily, the complexion is uniform, pores barely visible. Normal skin needs less cosmetics. Be careful, normal skin can be dehydrated.

The needs of normal skin: Moisturize, protect, prevent aging. You can use creams or oils like argan, jojoba, hemp, cherry. To moisturize, apply hydrating serums or aloe vera. Twice a month, make a fruit acid-based scrub or gum exfoliant. And in addition, apply a radiance mask.

To avoid: unsuitable or aggressive cleansers and cosmetics, cleansing the skin in the morning, excessively repetitive scrubs.


MIXED SKIN

Combination skin can be uncomfortable because it combines both oily skin on the T zone (forehead, nose, chin) and normal, even dry, skin on the cheeks. It often presents with enlarged pores and blackheads.

It is important to combine purifying and moisturizing treatments.



The needs of combination skin: Moisturize, nourish, regulate, soothe, regenerate, prevent aging.

Cleanse thoroughly in the evening (the skin should not feel tight). Avoid cleaning in the morning, unless it is very hot. To regulate sebum production, you can use treatments based on niacinamide and zinc. Moisturize with a fluid cream. You can also use jojoba oil. Facial massages will help you tighten pores and eliminate small irregularities and inflammations. 3 times a month, make a fruit acid-based scrub or gum exfoliant. And in addition, apply a radiance or moisturizing mask.

To avoid: cosmetics intended for oily and drying skin, excess cleansing, creams that are too rich, repetitive exfoliations.

OILY SKIN

Oily skin produces too much sebum (hyperseborrhea) which gives it that shiny/shiny appearance. The whole face is oily. Its pores are dilated with a higher risk of blackheads. Generally, when the skin is oily, the scalp is too.

 

The needs of oily skin: Cleanse, purify, soothe, regulate, hydrate.

In the case of oily skin, you can cleanse the skin evening and morning. But make sure your skin is not tight. Use gentle purifying or sebum-regulating treatments (based on niacinamide and zinc). Moisturize with a light cream or gel. You can also use hazelnut oil (and in case of imperfections, mix it with nigella). Facial massages will help you tighten pores and eliminate small irregularities and inflammations. 3 to 4 times a month, perform a fruit acid-based scrub or gum exfoliant. And in addition, apply a hydrating mask.



To avoid: drying products so as not to overexcite the sebaceous glands, alcohol-based cosmetics, over-exfoliation, forgetting to moisturize




RECOGNIZING YOUR SKIN TYPE



My skin is rough all year round if I don't use cream, tight, red in winter => dry
My skin adapts well to changes, is neither oily nor dry => normal
My skin looks different in certain areas of my face. Sometimes I can feel it dry and sometimes oily => mixed
My skin is oily all the time and shines all over my face => oily

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